It is defined as inflammation of the prepuce and glans in the case of men without circumcision.
Balanoposthitis occurs in a wide range of ages and can originate from any of the multiple bacteria or fungi of the microenvironment of the prepuce and glans or be due to dermatitis.
Complex infections have been documented, often from skin with poor elasticity and poor hygiene that leads to colonization and bacterial overgrowth.
Although multiple organisms have been implicated as causative agents, the patient is often treated empirically without the need for culture.
Candida infection seems to be the most common cause of the disease.
Older men often have other causes, including intertrigo, irritating dermatitis, and other fungal infections.
Organisms found include Bacteroides, Gardnerella, and nonalbicans species of Candida as well as β-hemolytic streptococcus.
Rare causes include infection with Streptococcus pyogenes, Prevotellamelaninogenica, Cordylobia, Providenciastuartii, and Pseudomonas.
Although it is found in a wide range of ages, most studies have focused on the young population, 0-5 years, or on sexually active adult men.
Treatment focuses on clearing the acute infection and preventing recurrent inflammation / infection through improved hygiene and the use of specific topical treatment.
Although it is no longer necessary, circumcision can be applied for persistent or recurrent balanoposthitis.